HUMAN FOOD REJECTIONS

Contents:
 
 

 

Page no.
[in original thesis]
ABSTRACT  
i
List of Tables
viii
List of Figures
xi
  [To be hyperlinked at a later date.]  
Section 0 Introduction
1
Section 1 The List Heuristic
6
1.0 Introduction
7
1.1 The Problem: Learning About Food Rejections
8
1.2 Methodological Approaches
10
1.3 Neophobia
11
1.4 Literature Review
12
1.4.1 Methods of Earlier Studies
12
1.4.2 Psychometric Measures
16
1.4.3 Relationships with Other Variables
18
1.5 Two New Studies
22
1.5.1 South Bank Sample
22
1.5.1.1 Method
22
1.5.1.2 Results
25
1.5.1.3 Discussion
29
1.5.2 Family Diet Study Sample
30
1.5.2.1 Methods
30
1.5.2.2 Results
32
1.5.2.3 Discussion
33
1.6 A Synthesis?
34
Section 2 Food Rejection Taxonomy
38
2.0 Introduction
39
2.1 The Need for a Taxonomy
40
2.2 The Method of Rozin & Fallon (1980)
42
2.3 The Importance of Nausea
46
2.4 Methodology
47
2.4.1 The Food Rejection Indices and its Design
47
2.4.2 Procedure
55
2.5 Basic Results
59
2.5.1 Description of Subjects
59
2.5.2 Results: FRIs
61
2.6 Multidimensional Scaling Results
64
2.6.1 Preliminary Data Processing
64
2.6.2 Overall Solution
67
2.6.3 Bootstrapping
70
2.7 Prototypes for the Four Rejection Categories
75
2.7.1 ‘Distaste’
75
2.7.2 ‘Disgust’
77
2.7.3 ‘Danger’
90
2.7.4 ‘Inappropriate’
90
2.7.5 Conclusion
99
2.8 Neophobia
100
2.8.1 MDS Results
101
2.8.2 Suggested Ethology
112
2.8.3 Relationship with Anxiety
115
2.9 Food scares—BSE and Salmonella
118
2.9.1 Introduction
120
2.9.1.1 History and Description of BSE
120
2.9.1.2 History and Description of Salmonella
123
2.9.1.3 Comparison Between BSE and Salmonella
124
2.9.1.4 Timing
125
2.9.2 ‘Danger’ or ‘disgust’?
125
2.9.2.1 Review
125
2.9.2.2 Results
131
2.9.3 Uncertainty
136
2.10 Unusual Variants
138
2.10.1 Sullivan & Birch (1990)
138
2.10.2 Results
139
2.10.3 Suggested Ethology
139
2.11 Smoking
144
2.11.1 MDS Results
144
2.11.2 Use of FRI in a Different Context
144
2.12 Conclusion
149
Section 3 Learned Food Aversions
151
3.0 Introduction
152
3.1 Literature Review
153
3.1.1 Experimental Psychology
154
3.1.1.1 Non-humans
154
3.1.1.2 Humans
156
3.1.2 Clinical (Human) Phenomena
158
3.1.2.1 Emetic Aversion Therapy
158
3.1.2.2 Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting (ANV)
159
3.1.2.3 "Cancer Anorexia"
160
3.1.2.4 Pregnancy
160
3.2 The Nature of the Response Produced
161
3.2.1 Literature Review
163
3.3 Clinical Perspectives
174
3.4 Methodological Issues to do with Nausea in Humans
176
3.4.1 Generating Nausea in an Ethically Acceptable Way
176
3.4.2 Measurement of Nausea
179
3.5 Two Studies
181
3.5.1 Study 1
181
3.5.1.1 Methods
182
3.5.1.2 Results
186
3.5.1.2.1 Symptom Ratings
186
3.5.1.2.2 Responses to Kśrrta
190
3.5.1.3 Discussion
193
3.5.2 Study 2
194
3.5.2.1 Methods
196
3.5.2.2 Results
201
3.5.2.2.1 Symptom Ratings
204
3.5.2.2.2 Responses to Kśrrta
209
3.5.2.2.3 Physiological Measures
213
3.6 Conclusion
216
Section 4 Conclusion
217
Section 5 Appendices
221
5.1.1 Food Lists
222
5.1.2 Anglicized Version of the Food Neophobia Scale
223
5.1.3 Modern Equivalents for ‘Neuroses’ in the Early List Heuristic Studies
223
5.2.1 Example FRI
226
5.2.2 FRI Items Chosen by Subjects
228
5.2.2.1 ‘Distaste’ Items
228
5.2.2.2 ‘Disgust’ Items
230
5.2.3 FRI Results in Full
230
5.3.1 Modified Cincinnati Neophobia Scale
253
5.3.2 Electrogastrography
253
Section 6 References
257

List of Tables


 
    Page no.
Section 1 The List Heuristic  
Table 1.1 Correlations with FNS from Pliner & Hobden (1992).
17
Table 1.2 List derived variables (South Bank sample).
24
Table 1.3 Cronbach’s ? for list measures (South Bank sample).
26
Table 1.4 Descriptive statistics for the main list heuristic variables (South Bank sample).
27
Table 1.5 List derived variables (Family Diet Study sample).
31
Section 2 Food Rejection Taxonomy
 
Table 2.1 Food rejection questions, ordered following Rozin & Fallon (1980) with related items in Fallon & Rozin (1983) matched.
43
Table 2.2 Food rejection questions used in the current study.
48
Table 2.3 Items used in the current study.
49
Table 2.4 Vegetarian status of subjects.
59
Table 2.5 Descriptive statistics for background variables.
60
Table 2.6 Correlations with FNS.
61
Table 2.7 Number of subjects who reported having tried the neophobia items.
115
Table 2.8 Correlations between FNS and overall attitude towards eating the neophobia items.
116
Table 2.9 Canonical correlations between FNS and FRI.
116
Table 2.10 Canonical correlations between trait STAI and FRI.
117
Table 2.11 FRI profiles by smoking behaviour.
147
Section 3 Learned Food Aversions
 
Table 3.1 Symptom history.
187
Table 3.2 Symptoms at baseline.
187
Table 3.3 Relationship between peak symptom ratings.
188
Table 3.4 Peak symptom ratings by procedural group.
189
Table 3.5 Peak symptom ratings in the circular vection group, split on peak nausea ratings.
190
Table 3.6 Time 1 kśrrta ratings.
191
Table 3.7 Change in kśrrta ratings by group.
192
Table 3.8 Time 1 and 2 kśrrta ratings by group.
193
Table 3.9 Descriptive statistics for background variables.
202
Table 3.10 Descriptive statistics for CNS and hunger ratings, untransformed.
203
Table 3.11 Time 1 kśrrta ratings.
203
Table 3.12 Relationship between time 1 kśrrta ratings.
204
Table 3.13 Symptom history data.
205
Table 3.14 Symptoms at baseline.
205
Table 3.15 Symptoms immediately prior to vestibular stimulation or control.
206
Table 3.16 Peak symptom ratings by procedural group.
207
Table 3.17 Peak symptom ratings in the vestibular stimulation group, split on peak nausea ratings.
208
Table 3.18 Relationship between peak symptom ratings.
209
Table 3.19 Change in kśrrta ratings by group.
211
Table 3.20 Pulse measurements.
213
Table 3.21 Number of averages available from the EGG recordings.
214
Section 5 Appendices
 
Table 5.1 Modern equivalents for terminology used in Wallen (1948).
225
Table 5.2 ‘Distaste’ items selected by subjects.
229
Table 5.2 ‘Distaste’ items selected by subjects.
230
Table 5.3 Index of FRI results.
231
Table 5.4 FRI results for "mild distaste".
232
Table 5.5 FRI results for "strong distaste".
233
Table 5.6 FRI results for "lemon juice".
234
Table 5.7 FRI results for "quinine".
235
Table 5.8 FRI results for "wasabi".
236
Table 5.9 FRI results for "disgust".
237
Table 5.10 FRI results for "carcinogen".
238
Table 5.11 FRI results for "cramps".
239
Table 5.12 FRI results for "food poisoning".
240
Table 5.13 FRI results for "cardboard".
241
Table 5.14 FRI results for "cockroach".
242
Table 5.15 FRI results for "water buffalo".
243
Table 5.16 FRI results for "clover".
244
Table 5.17 FRI results for "moss".
245
Table 5.18 FRI results for "gurnoe".
246
Table 5.19 FRI results for "pance".
247
Table 5.20 FRI results for "skoikos".
248
Table 5.21 FRI results for "BSE".
249
Table 5.22 FRI results for "Salmonella".
250
Table 5.23 FRI results for "Differs".
251
Table 5.24 FRI results for "Cigarette".
252

List of Figures


 
Page no.
Section 2 Food Rejection Taxonomy  
Figure 2.1 Overall multidimensional scaling analysis output.
68
Figure 2.2 Point cloud for "mild distaste".
78
Figure 2.3 Confidence region for "mild distaste".
79
Figure 2.4 Point cloud for "strong distaste".
80
Figure 2.5 Confidence region for "strong distaste".
81
Figure 2.6 Point cloud for "quinine".
82
Figure 2.7 Confidence region for "quinine".
83
Figure 2.8 Point cloud for "lemon juice".
84
Figure 2.9 Confidence region for "lemon juice".
85
Figure 2.10 Point cloud for "wasabi".
86
Figure 2.11 Confidence region for "wasabi".
87
Figure 2.12 Point cloud for "disgust".
88
Figure 2.13 Confidence region for "disgust".
89
Figure 2.14 Point cloud for "carcinogen".
91
Figure 2.15 Confidence region for "carcinogen".
92
Figure 2.16 Point cloud for "cramps".
93
Figure 2.17 Confidence region for "cramps".
94
Figure 2.18 Point cloud for "food poisoning".
95
Figure 2.19 Confidence region for "food poisoning".
96
Figure 2.20 Point cloud for "cardboard".
97
Figure 2.21 Confidence region for "cardboard".
98
Figure 2.22 Point cloud for "cockroach".
102
Figure 2.23 Confidence region for "cockroach".
103
Figure 2.24 Point cloud for "water buffalo".
104
Figure 2.25 Confidence region for "water buffalo".
105
Figure 2.26 Point cloud for "clover".
106
Figure 2.27 Confidence region for "clover".
107
Figure 2.28 Point cloud for "gurnoe".
108
Figure 2.29 Confidence region for "gurnoe".
109
Figure 2.30 Point cloud for "moss".
110
Figure 2.31 Confidence region for "moss".
111
Figure 2.32 Point cloud for "BSE".
132
Figure 2.33 Confidence region for "BSE".
133
Figure 2.34 Point cloud for "Salmonella".
134
Figure 2.35 Confidence region for "Salmonella".
135
Figure 2.36 Point cloud for "differs".
140
Figure 2.37 Confidence region for "differs".
141
Figure 2.38 Point cloud for "cigarette".
145
Figure 2.39 Confidence region for "cigarette".
146
Section 5 Appendices
 
Figure 5.1 EGG output showing normal response.
255
Figure 5.2 EGG output for Subject 29, second session.
256